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At various times during the game, something "special" will affect, or
attempt to affect, your character: things such as spells being cast at
you, poisonous snakes biting you, players using wands on you, etc. In
these special cases, your character is allowed a SAVING THROW There are
five kinds of saving throws: poison, rods, petrification, breath weapons,
and spells. A successful save means you either avoid the effect entirely
or the damage received is reduced.

Every player and mob has base values for each of the five saving throw
types, depending on class and level. Some classes are better at saving
against particular attack types, and higher levels generally have better
saving throw values than lower levels. When the game determines that a
saving throw needs to be rolled, it first looks up that character's base
value for their level and class. Next, modifiers for any worn equipment
that gives a saving throw modifier for that attack type are applied.
Finally, additional modifiers based on various other factors may be
applied, such as:
   Equipment with proficiency or susceptibility modifiers
   Difference in levels between you and your opponent
   Modifier for your character's class for that particular attack
   Modifier for your opponent's class for that particular attack

Once the value is calculated, a dice roll is made and compared to that
value, which determines whether your character succeeds or fails the
saving throw.

Since saving throws vs spells are the most common, that will be used as an
example to explain the function of saves. (Please note that the exact
numbers are given only for this example and are in no way intended to be
an accurate reflection of the "real" values used by the game.)

A level 25 warrior-class character is fighting a level 23 mage-class
monster. The monster casts a lightning bolt at the character. The
character is allowed a saving throw vs spells in order to take less damage
from the lightning bolt. First, the game finds the character's base save,
determined by his level and class. Assume this number is a 14 (it's not).
Next, the game looks to see if the character is wearing any equipment
that affects saves vs spells. He is wearing an amulet which is -2 SAVING
SPELL and a ring which is -3 SAVING SPELL Finally, the game checks to see
if any special modifiers are applied, such as:
    Proficiency or susceptibility equipment
    Modifiers for lightning bolt based on the caster's class (mage)
    Modifiers for lightning bolt based on the target's class (warrior)
    Modifiers for lightning bolt based on the level difference "  "

Assume, in this case, no other modifiers apply. These modifiers are
added up, resulting in a -5. This total is then added to the character's
base save of 14, resulting in a 9 (14+(-5)). Now the game rolls a 20-sided
die. If the number is higher than 9, the character "makes his save" and
takes less damage from the lightning bolt. A die roll of 1 always fails
the save, and a 20 always makes the save.

As stated in the above example, saving throws of all five types are based
on the level and class of the character.

Any saving throw modifier that is negative benefits the player. SAVING

The five types of saving throws and their effects are as follows:
   Save vs Poison is made for poison attacks
   Save vs Rod is made for spells and effects cast by a device (wand,
        staff, and most weapons with the ATTACK flag)
   Save vs Petrification is made for paralysis or petrifying attacks
   Save vs Breath is made for all types of breath weapons
   Save vs Spell is made to reduce or avoid the effects of a casted spell
        or a recited scroll.